In this paper, I try to summarized the present revolutionary events in Venezuela and I mentioned about their causes, processes, outcome, and relation to the international system.
First of all, I'd like to mention about the background of this revolutionary situation. There were warm relations between Venezuela and the US during the Cold War period. Hugo Chávez was the President of Venezuela. The President of Venezuela, Hugo Chavez, has taken a backlash from US governments with his policies such as selling oil to Cuba, establishing good relations with Iran, taking weapons from Russia and expropriating energy and telecommunications companies. Chavez, before his death, nominated Maduro instead of him. The relations with the United States followed a tense course in Maduro period. In April 2013, after Chavez lost his life in 2013, Maduro promised to continue the socialist revolution and became the new head of state with 50.8 per cent of the vote. Later, Maduro won the May 2018 presidential election, winning 68 percent of the vote. After these, protests started.
After Nicolas Maduro became president, protests began in 2014 because of security problems in the provinces of Tachira and Merida in western Venezuela. The demonstrations quickly jumped to the capital Caracas. The protests were supported by opposition parties and protests turned into anti-government demonstrations. Government forces, who are in the opposition of a coup attempt, intervened protestors and killed 28 people. In September 2016, protestors holding responsible to Maduro because of the economic crisis and they demanded the head of state to quit. The protests continued in April and June of 2017. In the clashes between protestors and security forces, who wanted early elections, many people lost their lives.
What was the reason of economic crisis? The Venezuelan economy has been troubled by the decline in oil prices, especially since 2014. Venezuela, which has obtained 95 percent of its export revenue from oil sales, has also suffered from a decline in oil revenues. Due to the shortage of goods in the process, prices have increased. In Venezuela, where high inflation was experienced, the currency depreciated strongly.
Also, While US governments have considered Venezuela President Nicolas Maduro as a da dictator da since the Obama era, sanctions were imposed on Venezuela and the pressure on Venezuela increased during the Trump period. The Trump administration officials have also been in contact with the Venezuelan opposition several times since the autumn of 2017, and they have dealt with the issue of "coup" with some of the former commanders in the army. After these, America and some other countries recognized Guaido as head of state. Guaido was elected President of the National Assembly at the beginning of 2019. This is the first time that the 35-year-old politician, who had never been heard before, was included in the world press for the first time. After being elected President of the National Assembly, he was briefly detained on 13 January. The parties made different statements about the nature of the detention. On 23 January, Guaido announced that he was not only the President of the National Assembly, but also the Interim President. The United States recognized Guaido as President. But Maduro "Do not trust the United States. They do not have friends, they have interests. They have claws that are opened against Venezuela's oil and its riches." Maduro also supports by the Venezuelan government. On the other hand, Venezuelan National Security Minister Vladimir Padrino says the armed forces will not support Guaido.
What do the countries of the world say about the Venezuelan situation? US, Canada, Colombia, Peru, Ecuador, Paraguay, Brazil, Chile, Panama, Argentina, Costa Rica and Guatemala have clearly supported the presidency of Guaido but Bolivia and Mexico support the Maduro government. On the other hand, European countries says that should be "political transition" and " re-election" in Venezuela. So far, among the European countries, Britain, France, Germany, Denmark and Kosovo have declared their support for Guaido. However, Turkey, Russia and China have declared they support for the government of Maduro.
What does the international media say about the issue of Venezuela? The international media has given wide coverage to anti-government protests in Venezuela in recent years. They focus on the economic problems in the country, the media frequently reported on empty market shelves and food tails. Especially, the coup attempt against Maduro was also the agenda in the international media. In addition, Guaido's self-proclaimed for the head of state has found the flash news in the international media.
As a result, there are some revolutionary events in Venezuela and firstly, I mentioned about background of these events after that I mentioned about causes of these revolutionary events and I mentioned about processes and outcomes of these events and lastly, I mentioned about relation with international system. As a result, Still these revolutionary events not revolution because of some dimensions that are mentioned above. One of the most important reason for the beginning sentence is that Maduro is still govern the country and army of Venezuela is still support Maduro.